ReGenesis

ENCYCLOPEDIA

GSA "Goddess, Sites and Artifacts Collection "  curated by Eahr BA Joan 

ENTRY 16

30,000, Labyrinths, Spirals, and Meanders

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INTRODUCTORY CITATIONS

Ouroborus.

Going on means going far,

Going far means re-turning.

(Tao Te Ching.)

 

 

Manifold Ways of Knowing.

 

The labyrinth is the winding, all-encompassing path;

meandering here and there, moving nonlinearly toward,

then away from, then toward the goal again-patient path

that seems to enjoy its own winding [serpentine] journey. …

Manifold ways of knowing [that] …suggests

the multiplicity of being [be-ing]-

the vast possibilities of what may be realized

in the form of concrete particulars.

The winding labyrinth path that

touches and depends upon each and every point

of its area may symbolize the infinite possibilities

that may be realized-an infinite appreciation

of a pluralistic universe.

(LL: 1, 17.)

Wholeness.

 

Basic ontological assumptions:

the universe is basically a single whole

within which every part is connected to every other part.

This wholeness includes every aspect accessible to human awareness –

the physical world as discerned through our physical senses,

and all the contents of consciousness.

(TSW: 393.)

 

 

Spiral.

 

[A]n elementary unicursal labyrinth

as they have an indirect path

leading to a hidden center.

(MLW: 18.)

Labyrinth – Spiral – Meander Origins.

 

[T]he labyrinth can be traced back

to the spiral and meander c. 30,000 BCE.

This new prominence is supported

by further engraved artifacts and stones

plus, cave finds.

(See below.)

 

 

Labyrinth.

 

Place of the labrys.

(MTPC: 11: n. 7.)

 

 

Labyrinthos.

‘Meaning [is] from the word labrys (labrys/lip)’

fertile womb of the Great Mother Earth.

(EW: 65.)

 

 

Katabasis.

With each new spiraling re–turn or

katabasis to mother earth,

is the possibility of another Re-Genesis.

(See below.)

 

 

Re-Genesis.

 

The labrys is a manifestation of

incantation rites and metamorphosis

or re–generative rituals.

(See below.)

ENTRY NARRATIVE

Kerenyi theorizes that the labyrinth, spiral, and meander are [unicursal] paths or journeys in which one returns to the beginning. (D: 92-96.) Labyrinth means the place of the labrys. (MTPC: 11: n. 7.) The etymology for both labyrinth and labrys is the Greek labyrinthos, ‘a network of intricate passageways.’ “The palace of Knossos was itself called labyrinthos, or ‘the palace of the double axes and both the labyrinth, a universal symbol of the uterine maze, and the double axe (or labrys), derive their meaning from the word labrys (/labia/lip),’” fertile womb of the Great Mother Earth. (EW: 65.) Cameron adds that from this same “root comes the word labia, the elaborate folds of the labia majora and the labia minora of the vulva. The butterfly/double – axe symbol could represent [the] opened labia.” (SA: 10, n. 7.) Adding to the butterfly – labia consideration, archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans “published a series of chrysalises, butterflies, and goddesses related to chrysalises or with butterfly wings. (RN: 53-71.) He interpreted the chrysalis as an emblem of new life after death.” (GGE: 186-7.)

 

In addition to the labrys symbols, ‘butterfly – chrysalises – labia’, the double axe conjoined at apexes is also a prototype of Cretan labia and a common theme found in Minoan – Mycenaean art. The double axe (or more appropriately labium (SA: 10)) has two conjoined triangles at the apexes. Also, images of Minoan – Mycenaean butterflies are frequently portrayed with double axe wings or conjoined triangles at the apexes.  (See, MMRS: 195. Fig. 90 (41).) According to Gimbutas, “these schematized butterflies are the prototypes of the Minoan double – axe.” (GGE: 186.) The ancient symbols for the triangle, double axe, and butterfly may well be the X and V as first introduced in Re-Genesis 70,000 entry, Blombos Cave followed by numerous other Re-Genesis entries as noted below. For additional V/triangle/vulvic research, see (GGE: 186-7; LOG: 13; WAM: 116-8; ECLE.)

 

Further X considerations include Holy for the Goddess.

Concerning the use of the mark X in Near Eastern religions, Urs Winter, op. cit., 301 quotes O. Keel who discovered that the X on the forehead of certain Near-Eastern statuettes is a sign, which identified the woman as belonging to the goddess. The X, which in old Canaanite alphabet is the same as, the letter Taw meant ‘Holy for the goddess.’ So were cakes and breads also marked that were dedicated to the goddess. From the Old Testament, Keel refers to Ex 28.36 and Ezekiel 9.4-6 where such signs were used meaning a dedication for JHWH. See also Urs Winter, op. cit. p. 569 concerning remarks on terra-cotta figures, which may represent baked goods with the sign of an X (TVG: 188, n. 64).

 

The double – axe indicates significant objects of worship that were used for ritual purposes in caves, mountains, and on altars in temple shrines including the Shrine of the Double Axe and the Tomb of the Double Axe. These and other labyrinth cave sanctuaries are considered as prototypes of 12th century CE cathedrals. It is also of note that the sizes of double axes vary significantly. Many are either 6-8 feet tall (MAL: 30-31, Fig. 9) such as the ‘pillar culture’ finds from the Dictaean Cave as discussed by Evans (MTPC: 9-13) – or – much smaller bronze or stone votive objects found in conjunction with priestesses and rituals. Re-Genesis suggests that the labrys is a manifestation of incantation rites and metamorphosis or re-generative rituals. Interpretations of the labrys include the: labia; butterfly; chrysalises; double axe conjoined at apexes; figure 8 (eternity); earth’s center; and the waxing and waning moon. Significance may be a homecoming to self and mother (or cosmocentric matrix) that sparks or enhances be – ing and be – coming as in re-creation i.e. thelytokous parthenogenesis/autopoiesis. This awakening spark might also be compared to the “spark of the indigenous genius of humankind” that each person embodies. (NHI: 155.) Self-actualized numinosity.

 

The re – turning journey to the labrys is known in Greek as the katabasis or the descent. Metaphorically walking the labyrinth may have three stages including: detachment; parthenogenetic re – birth; and then integration or a Re-Genesis during the exit or ascent. In Mazes and Labyrinths of the World, W. F. Jackson Knight links the labyrinth to death and rebirth themes as a: “microcosm of the earth and a macrocosm of the human anatomy.” (MLW: 10; MLT.)

In death one returns to the earth, the mother, from which one is eventually reborn. The presence of the labyrinth at burial structures signifies a ritual entry into the earth; the labyrinth represents both the earth and the human body as sources of life (MLW: 10; MLT).

 

Following on Jackson’s theme that in death is the return to mother earth, *

propose the universal quest of all seekers and pilgrims to the womb – cavern to reunite with one’s origins.

Because the journey into the cavern of the underworld [or labyrinth Cosmic – womb] is the central human quest, the womb – cavern is the archetype of every holy – of – holies. It is as though architecture has recorded for eternity the forgotten goal of religion [spirituality] – to reunite with the feminine [female] principle in order to transcend duality and attain wholeness, oneness, and enlightenment (BT: 36).

* For an 11th century translation of a Hymn to Mother Earth:

Battaglia, Frank.  “Goddess Religion in the Early British Isles.”  Varia on the

Indo–European Past: Papers in Memory of Marija Gimbutas.  Eds. Miriam Robbins Dexter, and Edgar C. Polomé.   Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph No. 19 (1997): 67-73. (GR.)

 

From the earliest, spirals, meanders, labyrinths, and labryses starting with ancient rock and cave symbols and engravings are reminders of human’s “unceasing preoccupation with the spiral order and his [one’s] spiral development.” (MS: 29.) The spiral may also “be thought of as an elementary unicursal labyrinth as they have an indirect path leading to a hidden center.” (MLW: 18.)

The spiral or labyrinth [and meander], depicted in ancient tombs, implies a death and reentry into the womb of the earth, necessary before the spirit can be reborn in the land of the dead. But death and rebirth also mean the continuous transformation and purification of the spirit throughout life; the alchemists use the word VITRIOL to stand for Visita interiora terrae rectificando invenies occultum lapidem. ‘Visit the interior of the earth; through purification thou wilt find the hidden stone.’ Such a descent into the underworld (the kingdom of Pluto) is the theme for most initiation rituals, and is comparable to the passage through the wilderness, or the ‘dark night of the soul,’ which is experienced by mystics [and all soul seekers] on their path. It is furthermore [almost] always symbolized by the spiral. Those on the columns of the Treasury of Atreus (a relic which is still to be found in the volutes of the Ionic column) have a further correspondence; by passing between two spiral columns, the initiate becomes the central axis or pillar and consciousness and equilibrium, for he [/she] has thus passed between two opposite pillars of the Tree of Life, or between the coils of the serpents of the caduceus, and has thereby come into direct contact with the Source of Being (MS: 29-30).

 

In a more contemporary light, the soul or spirit’s search for wholeness is an ongoing labyrinthine journey back to the labrys that includes further considerations such as the: center, matrix, matter or mother earth. With each new spiraling re-turn or katabasis to mother earth, is the possibility of another Re-Genesis. In William Braud’s article, “The Ley and the Labyrinth: Universalistic and Particularistic Approaches to Knowing” he eloquently speaks to a spiraling re – turn (or nonlinear) process.

The labyrinth is the winding, all – encompassing path; meandering here and there, moving nonlinearly [or nonlinear] toward, then away from, then toward the goal again – patient path that seems to enjoy its own winding [serpentine] journey. … Manifold ways of knowing [that] …suggests the multiplicity of being [be-ing] – the vast possibilities of what may be realized in the form of concrete particulars. The winding labyrinth path that touches and depends upon each and every point of its area may symbolize the infinite possibilities that may be realized – an infinite appreciation of a pluralistic universe (LL: 1, 17).

ADDITIONAL NOTES FROM "ARAS" DATA RESEARCH INDEX

The emergence of the aniconic phenomena of the labyrinth can be traced back to the spiral and meander c. 30,000 BCE. *

This new prominence is supported by further engraved artifacts and stones plus cave finds that include:

 

* the oldest ‘picture layers’ from the Altamira (Santander) Cave (EP: 295,

301, Fig. 184);

* meandering imagery on a bull’s head from the ceiling in Altamira

(Santander) Cave (EP: 301, Fig. 188, 300);

* mammoths and bird goddesses plus other full breasted goddesses

located in the gallery known as the Hall of the Hieroglyphs in

the Pech –Merle Cave (EP: 52, 54, 295, 305, 397, 530, 538, Fig. 18);

* sixty spiral cupules from a rock shelter in La Ferrassie, Dordogne,

France (EP: 136, Figs. 79, 138);

* bird goddess with engraved meanders, Mezin, Ukraine (TROC: 313-315,

Fig. 186);

* an engraved bone with a serpentine pattern of sixty-nine spherical

indentations from Abri Blanchard, Dordogne in the Gorge d'Enfer Rock Shelters

(TROC: 44-9, 54, 90, Figs. 7, 9, 10 a-b, 8); plus

* spirals, meanders, and goddesses from Mal’ta, near Irkutsk, Siberia

(TROC: 337, Fig. 202c; LOG: 89, Fig. 146, 2b; MS: 100, Figs. 13-14;

ARAS numbers 1Ca.061 and 1Ca.062).

(EP: 295, 301, Fig. 184; 301, Fig. 188, 300; 52, 54, 295, 305, 397, 530, 538,

Fig. 18; 136, Fig. 79, 138; TROC: 44-9, 54, 90, Figs. 7, 9, 10 a-b, 8;

337, Fig. 202c; LOG: 89, Fig. 146, 2b; MS: 100, Figs. 13-14.)

 

For a more in depth discussion and detailed images, see ARAS (The Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism), http://resources.ciis.edu:2058/index.aspx. ARAS record numbers include: 1Ca.002; 1Ca.003; 1Ca.008; 1Ca.016a; 1Ca.060b and 1Ca.104a. The keyword phase is, “meanders and spirals.” Also see ARAS record numbers: 1Ca.061 and 1Ca.062, keyword is “Mal’ta.” * (For the first Re-Genesis entry that includes the spiral, see 50,000 BCE, African Homo Sapiens Migrations and Matrilineal Motherline. (RGS.))

* Access requires username and password.

FURTHER RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS

Although c. 30,000 BCE saw a further development of the aniconic spiral and the meander, it was during the Neolithic (8000-3500/3000 BCE) that the labyrinth and labyrinthine engravings became more pronounced along with the coil, spiral (oculi), snake, concentric circles, and owl goddess configurations. Selected Neolithic labyrinthine ceramics, seals, sites, monuments, and other related iconographic research includes: 6000-5500 Sesklo Seal (COG: 317, Fig. 1); 6000 sandstone sculptures with labyrinthine/uterine designs, Lepenski Vir, Serbia Danube (PRR: 36-37, LOG: 157); 5790-5750 kilim with labyrinth design, Çatal Hüyük Anatolia ARAS Record, 2Da.117; 5500-5200 ceramics, Bukk Culture, northeast Hungary and east Slovakia (COG: 43-7); 5200-5000 meander/labyrinth, Banjica near Belgrade, Early Vinca (COG: 313, Figs. 8-11); 5500-4000 ceramics, Dimini Culture, Greece (COG: 25-29); 4500 Karanovo-Gumelnita square labyrinth homes; 4000-3000 Locmariaquer, Brittany France; 4000-3500 Gavr’Innis (or Gavrinis), Brittany France; 3800, Hal Saflieni Hypogeum, Malta; 3500-3200 New Grange or Newgrange, County Meath, Dowth, and Knowth Ireland (COG: 214, Fig.  6-33 plus 298, Figs. 7-119; SOTG: 115); 3400 Egyptian tomb of King Perabsen (or Peribsen) (MLW: 33, Fig. 38); 3300, Tarxien, Malta (MS: Fig. 55); 3250 Abydos, Egypt; 3150 Tomb of King Ka'a, First Dynasty, Egypt; 3100 Stonehenge, England; 3000 Avebury, England; 3000 Woodhenge, England; 3000 Troy, Anatolia; Entrail-labyrinth, Mesopotamia (MS: Fig. 2); Rocky Valley near Cornwall, England; Clear Island Co. Cork Ireland (MMG: 256; ancient Val Camonica, Lombardy, Italy (LCS: Fig. 7); Naquane in Valcamonica, Italian Alps; Mogor, Galicia (MMG: 256; Casal, Minho Portugal (MMG: 256; Lerfall, Ukraine; Knossos, Crete; and spirals on numerous clay stamps. (LOG: 123, Fig. 193.)

 

Further research for the labyrinth and related BCE labyrinthine examples that followed the Neolithic, includes: 2000, Knossos coin pattern, later apparent on Gotland Island in Sweden and the US Hopi Indian tribes (TK: 82-83); and 1842-1797 Egyptian Labyrinth Temple of Amenemhet (or Amenemhat) III (NLEL: 111-120; LFS: 21). Egyptian meander hieroglyphs and possibly the first Greek key pattern (LFS: 5-7); 1750 literary descent of Sumerian Inanna, Urak, Babylon (RAR); 1700 Phaistos Disk, plus Cretan palaces, labyrinths, and owl coins (MS: Fig. 51); Dapuritojo (Lady of the Labyrinth) as invoked at Knossos (ETG: 26) and also mentioned in the Linear B inscriptions (MHE: 138); Glastonbury Tor, England; Labyrinth Court, Palatine Hill, Rome; Malekula, New Hebrides Island; burial chamber Bryn Celli Ddu on Anglesey Island, Wales; 1000 representation of Solomon’s Labyrinth (ARAS, record #5Do.002); 100 BCE to 700 CE famed Nazca Lines in the Peruvian Desert; and Oraibi Arizona USA. (MLW: 32, Fig. 37.)

 

Similar patterns of the labyrinth, labyrinthine subterranean passages, spiral, and meander continued to emerge for thousands of years on stone engravings, numerous painted cave walls, and sacred sites in: Egypt; Africa; Australia; Scandinavia; Turkey; Mesopotamia; Russia; India; Indonesia; Tibet; Greece; Brittany; China; South America; and American Pueblos tribes including the Hopis, Zunis and the Pimas. (LCS: xxii-xxiii; 24.)

 

Selected CE examples include: labyrinth mosaic of Theseus and minotaur (ARAS, 3Pg.001); 500 Villa of the Mysteries fresco (Villa dei Misteri); ‘initiation and descent ritual’ of Roman women plus the House of the Labyrinth, Pompeii Italy (ARAS record #3Pa.017); 9th century Samarra Mosque, Iraq (MS: Fig. 48); 12 c. Gethsemane Courtyard fresco in Jerusalem; 1167-1200 city plan of the walls of Jericho (LCS: 12, Fig. 33); 1200 Chartres Cathedral (TGG: 35) plus the Cathedrals at Poitiers, Amiens, Ravenna, and St. Omer (LCS); 1400 Notre Dame, Paris; 1510 vulva labyrinth design (MLW: 85, Fig. 127); 1549 Villa d’Este Tivoli Gardens (MLW: 116, Fig. 177); 1674 Versailles; 1699 Saffron Walden (best preserved UK turf labyrinth), Essex England (MLW: 52-3, Fig. 79-81); 1899 Vincent Van Gogh’s Starry Night France (MS: 25); and the 1991 indoor labyrinth followed by the 9-3-1995 outdoor labyrinth installations at Grace Cathedral, San Francisco, CA.

Further research on the labyrinth, labrys, spiral, and meander: 30,000-25,000, Aurignacian Age; 3000, Founding of Troy; 2700, Silbury Hill, England; 2600-2000, Early Bronze Age, Crete, Chthonian; 2000-1450, Middle Bronze Age, Crete; 2000, Asherah; and 1450-1260, Hattusa and Yazilikaya, Anatolia. For a significant tomb with multiple spirals, see the Castelluccio tomb door #34 in Re-Genesis entry, 19th to 15th BCE, Castelluccio Culture. (RGS.)

 

Re-Genesis research on ancient healing/re-generating centers, some more well-known than others: Anatolian Bursa, Pergamon/Asclepion, Perge, Pamukkale, Ephesus and Bogazkoy; Egyptian Philae, Dendera, Abu Simbel/Abshek’s Sacred Cave, and Kom Ombo; Roman Villa of Mysteries, Herculaneum, and Pompeii; Greek Kos; Minoan Crete; Megaliths Stonehenge, Avebury, Woodhenge, and West Kennet Long Barrow; ancient chalk mound Silbury Hill; Celtic Glastonbury/Chalice Well, and Brythonic Bath; Breton Gavrinis; Eire/Ireland’s Knowth and Newgrange; Syrian Palmyra, * and Iberian – Roman Alhambra.

* UNESCO world–heritage site Palmyra was invaded and seized by Islamic militants on 5–20–2015. Ancient Palmyra was a major caravan juncture for centuries, crossroad center of trade, dark–deity rituals, water–healing facilities, and mercantile information exchange resource for Greek, Roman, Persian and Islamic cultures. As a world–crossroad repository, Palmyra’s archaeology is/was (?) an iconic legacy and archive of ancient civilizations.

 

Further underworld/labyrinthine descent (Greek, katabasis) research: 4000,

Sumer, Mesopotamia and Myth; 1750, Hammurabian Dynasty, Babylon, Ishtar, and Inanna; 1750, Ishtar; 630-620, Goddess Kore, Izmir Turkey; 528, Agrigento, Sicily; 500, Greek Mysteries; 282-263, Demeter’s Priene Temple; and 200, Greece and Pergamon, Anatolia. * (RGS.)

* For the matrix of descent and re–turned deities see RG: 37-48 CE, Mary and Pagan Goddesses.

(Further research on the Pergamon mystery rites is pending, including the nearby Amazon temple site at Myrina.)

 

Keyword suggestions for further research about possible cities founded by Amazons, include: Smyrna (Izmir); Ephesus; Cyme (Side); Gryneium; Prjene (Priene); Pitane (Western Anatolia; Mytilene (Lesbos); Troy; Samothrace; and outside of Pergamum (Pergamon).

 

Further V/triangle/vulvic research : 70,000, Blombos Cave; 34,000-28,000, Les Eyzies Vulva Engravings, Dordogne Caves; 31,000, Chauvet Cave and Vulva Engravings; 30,000-25,000, The Aurignacian Age; 30,000-25,000, Goddess of Willendorf, Austria; 8000/7000-5000, Early Neolithic; 7000-5000, Early Neolithic Crete; 5500-3500, Cucuteni (Tripolye) Culture, Eastern Europe; 5300-4300, Climactic Phase and Script in Old Europe; 4000-3000, Locmariaquer, Brittany Hook Symbology; 4000-3500, Gavrinis, Brittany France; 2000, Asherah; 1900-1800, Dawning of the African Alphabet and the Aniconic Goddess Triangle; 1790-1700, Goddess of Kultepe, Anatolia; 1500, Lachish Ewer, Triangle, and Menorah; and 800, Tanit (Also Taanit, Ta’anit, Tannit, or Tannin). (RGS.)

 

Further research on vulva images: 34,000-28,000, Les Eyzies Vulva Engravings, Dordogne Caves; 31,000, Chauvet Cave and Vulva Engravings; 30,000-25,000, Aurignacian Age; 30,000-25,000, Goddess of Willendorf, Austria; 25,000-20,000, Goddess of Laussel; 5300-4300, Climactic Phase and Script in Old Europe; 3000-2000, Cycladic Goddesses; 2600-2000, Early Bronze Age, Crete, Chthonian; and 400, Celtic Sheela-na-gig. (RGS.) *

* For additional CE information, see illustration of a 1600 c. vulva labyrinth design in: Bord, Janet.  Mazes and Labyrinths of the World.  New York, NY: Dutton, 1976. 85, Fig. 127.) (MLW.)

BIBLIOGRAPHIC CONCIDERATIONSDATIONS

Further V/triangle/vulvic research :

70,000, Blombos Cave; 34,000-28,000, Les Eyzies Vulva Engravings, Dordogne Caves; 31,000, Chauvet Cave and Vulva Engravings; 30,000-25,000, The Aurignacian Age; 30,000-25,000, Goddess of Willendorf, Austria; 8000/7000-5000, Early Neolithic; 7000-5000, Early Neolithic Crete; 5500-3500, Cucuteni (Tripolye) Culture, Eastern Europe; 5300-4300, Climactic Phase and Script in Old Europe; 4000-3000, Locmariaquer, Brittany Hook Symbology; 4000-3500, Gavrinis, Brittany France; 2000, Asherah; 1900-1800, Dawning of the African Alphabet and the Aniconic Goddess Triangle; 1790-1700, Goddess of Kultepe, Anatolia; 1500, Lachish Ewer, Triangle, and Menorah; and 800, Tanit (Also Taanit, Ta’anit, Tannit, or Tannin). (RGS.)

 

Further research on vulva images:

34,000-28,000, Les Eyzies Vulva Engravings, Dordogne Caves; 31,000, Chauvet Cave and Vulva Engravings; 30,000-25,000, Aurignacian Age; 30,000-25,000, Goddess of Willendorf, Austria; 25,000-20,000, Goddess of Laussel; 5300-4300, Climactic Phase and Script in Old Europe; 3000-2000, Cycladic Goddesses; 2600-2000, Early Bronze Age, Crete, Chthonian; and 400, Celtic Sheela-na-gig. (RGS.) *

* For additional CE information, see illustration of a 1600 c. vulva labyrinth design in: Bord, Janet.  Mazes and Labyrinths of the World.  New York, NY: Dutton, 1976. 85, Fig. 127.) (MLW.)

Further research on symbolic systems including the V/triangle/vulvic cave engravings and gender emergence:

Caldwell, Duncan.  

"Supernatural Pregnancies: Common Features and New

Ideas Concerning Upper Paleolithic Feminine Imagery."  Arts &

Cultures. Geneva, Switzerland: Barbier-Mueller Museums, 2010. 52-75.

(SPC.)

Clottes, Jean, and J. David Lewis-Williams.

 The Shamans of Prehistory:

Trance and Magic in the Painted Caves.  Trans. Sophie Hawkes. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 1998. (SOP.)

Conroy, L. P.  

“Female Figurines of the Upper Paleolithic and the Emergence

of Gender.”  Women in Archaeology: A Feminist Critique.  Eds. Hilary

du Cros and Laurajane Smith. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Prehistory,

Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University,

1993. 153-160. (FF.)

Jabr, Ferris.  

“Ars Longa.”  New York Times Magazine, Dec. 7, 2014: 18, 20.

(ARSL.)

Joan, Eahr Amelia.  

“Ochre’s Living Lineage: The Gyne-Morphic Bloodline of

Spirituality,” 2017. (OLL.)

Lewis-Williams, David J.  

The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and the

Origins of Art.  London, England: Thames and Hudson, 2002. (MIC.)

Marler, Joan, and Miriam R. Dexter, Eds.  

Signs of Civilization: Neolithic

Symbol System of Southeast Europe.  Novi Sad, Hungary: Institute of

Archaeomythology, 2009. (SC.)

McCoid, Catherine Hodge and LeRoy D. McDermott.  

"Toward Decolonizing Gender.”  American Anthropologist 98.2 (Jun. 1996): 319-326. (TDG.)

Rubin, Alissa J.  

"A Mirror of Subterranean Wonders: Replica of Chauvet Cave Bristles with Lifelike Paintings.”  New York Times, Apr. 25, 2015: C1-C2. (MSW.)

Tedlock, Barbara.  

The Woman in the Shaman's Body: Reclaiming the

Feminine in Religion and Medicine.  New York, NY: Bantam Books,

2005. (WSB.)

 

Further research indicates that ancient cave artists who made the hand stencils ‘were predominately female’:

Snow, Dean.  

“Sexual Dimorphism in European Upper Paleolithic Cave Art.”

American Antiquity 78.4 (Oct. 2013): 746-761. (SDE.)

 

Further research on the double axe including: sites and sanctuaries; hourglass; butterflies; chrysalises; labia, labrys (katabasis); figure 8; X; plus, bucrania and bull’s heads:

 

Evans, Sir Arthur.

 “The Ring of Nestor:' A Glimpse into the Minoan After-

World and a Sepulchral Treasure of Gold Signet-Rings and Bead-Seals

from Thisbê, Boeotia.”  The Journal of Hellenic Studies 45. Part 1

(1925): 1-75. (RN.)

Gimbutas, Marija Alseikaite.  

Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe, 6500-3500

BC: Myths and Cult Images.  2nd ed. London, England: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1984. [The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe, 7000-3500 BC: Myths, Legends, and Cult Images.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1974.] (GGE.)

_____.  The Language of the Goddess.  San Francisco, CA: Harper San

Francisco, 1989. 239-243, 270-275. (LOG.)
_____.  The Civilization of the Goddess: The World of Europe.  San Francisco,

CA: Harper, 1991. 244-248, (COG). (See extensive index.)

Nilsson, Martin Persson.  

The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in

Greek Religion. 1927. New York, NY: Biblo and Tannen, 1950. 165-

235and 195, Fig. 90 (41.) (MMRS.)

 

Further research on parthenogenesis/self-seeding/self-making/autopoiesis and 21 century routine aspects of self-fertilized eggs = two X chromosomes:

Capra, Fritjof.  

The Web of Life: A New Understanding of Living Systems.  New York, NY: Anchor, 1996. 194-221. (WOL.)

Holt, Jim.  “Single-Egg Theory: Immaculate Conception without God.”

Lingua Franca 11.7 (Oct. 2001): 68. 

http://linguafranca.mirror.theinfo.org/print/0110/hypothesis.html

Margulis, Lynn.  

Symbiosis in Cell Evolution: Microbial Communities

in the Archean and Proterozoic Eons.  New York, NY:

Freeman, 1993. (SCE.)

Morowitz, Harold J., and James S. Trefil.  

The Facts of Life: Science and the Abortion Controversy.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992. (FL.)

Murdock, D. M.  

“Was the Persian Goddess Anahita the Pre-Christian

Virgin Mother of Mithra?”  Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata.  Ed. Payam Nabarz.  London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 94-116. (WPG.)

Perlman, David.  

“Survival of the Fittest Females.”  San Francisco Chronicle

22 Mar. 2004: A4. (SFF.)

Rigoglioso, Marguerite.  

Bearing the Holy Ones: A Study of the Cult of Divine Birth in Ancient Greece.  Diss. California Institute of Integral Studies, 2007. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest/UMI, 2008. (Publication No. AAT 3286688.) (BHO.)

_____.  The Cult of Divine Birth.  New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. (CD.)

 

Further double axe research: 5500-3500, Cucuteni (Tripolye) Culture, Eastern Europe; 5000, Near and Middle East; 4000, Alaca Hüyük, Anatolia; 2600-2000, Early Bronze Age, Crete, Chthonian * Prepa

400, Cybele and Buyukkale/Bogazkoy, Anatolia; and 664-525, Neith and the Black Virgin Mary Temple at Sais, Egypt. (RGS.)

* (Earth mother, Chthonia.)

 

Further double/twin goddess including further double axe research: 26,000, Grimaldi Caves; 25,000-20,000, Goddess of Laussel; 7250-6150, Çatal Hüyük; 6000, Sicilians to Malta:

 

5500-3500, Cucuteni (Tripolye) Culture, Eastern Europe; 5400-4100, Vinca Culture and Bird and Snake Culture; 5200, Malta and Gozo; 4400-2500, Olympus Hera; 4000, Alaca Hüyük, Anatolia; 3500, Anatolia, Arinna, and Other Goddesses; 3000, Middle Indo-European Bronze Age; 3,000, Tell Brak; 2600-2000, Early Bronze Age, Crete, Chthonian; 1790-1700, Goddess of Kultepe, Anatolia; 1750, Ishtar; 1000, Double Goddess Transition; 630-620, Goddess Kore, Izmir Turkey; 500, Greek Mysteries; and 282-263, Demeter’s Priene Temple. (RGS.)

 

Further research on earlier female identified shrines and sacred sites that were later replaced by churches, mosques, and synagogues: 12,000, Pamukkale/Hierapolis, Anatolia (Central Turkey);

1290-1223, Abu Simbel, Egypt; 700-550, Apollo at Delphi and Didymaion; and 282-263, Demeter’s Priene Temple, Anatolia. (RGS.)

 


Further CE research on early Pagan shrines, temples, and labyrinths that were replaced with Christian churches and cathedrals: 410, Cybele and Fall of Rome; 401-402, Christian Destruction of Gaza Temples;

324, St. Peter’s Basilica Built Over Pagan Site, Rome; 326-1243, Byzantine Period and Constantine the Great; 432-440, Santa Maria Maggiore Church Built Over Pagan Site; 12th and 13th Centuries, Cult of the Virgin Mary; 1280, Catholic Church Built Over Pagan Sanctuary, Rome; and 1870, Lyon’s Basilica Built Over Cybele’s Pagan Temple. (RGS.)


Further research and discussions on the impact of labyrinths and caves as entries into the esoteric underground worlds:

 

Lewis-Williams, David J., and D. G. Pearce.  

Inside the Neolithic Mind: Consciousness, Cosmos and the Realm of the Gods.  London, England: Thames & Hudson, 2005. (INM.)

Pfeiffer, John E.  

The Creative Explosion: An Inquiry into the Origins of Art

and Religion.  New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1982. (TCE.)

 

Further research on Labyrinth, Spirals, and Meanders:

Alexiou, Stylianos, Nikolaos Platon, and Hanni Guanella.  

Ancient Crete. Trans. D. J. S. Thomson. London, England: Thames & Hudson, 1968.(AC.)

Artress, Lauren.  

Walking a Sacred Path: Rediscovering the Labyrinth As a

Spiritual Tool.  New York, NY: Riverhead Books. 1995. (WSP.)

 

Attali, Jacques.

 The Labyrinth in Culture and Society: Pathways to Wisdom.

Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books, 1999. (LCS.)

Barton, Gary Kenneth.  

Negotiating The Labyrinth: Semiotics and the

Making of Meaning.  Diss. The Claremont Graduate University, 1994. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest/UMI, 1994. (Publication No. AAT 9422477.) (NL.)

Berry, Thomas.

 The Great Work: Our Way into the Future.  New York, NY:

Bell Tower, 1999. (GWO.)

Bord, Janet.  

Mazes and Labyrinths of the World.  

New York, NY: Dutton, 1976. (MLW.)

Braud, William G.  

“The Ley and the Labyrinth: Universalistic and

Particularistic Approaches to Knowing.”  William James Center for

Consciousness Studies Working Paper No. 1997-1 (1997): 1-20. (LL.)

Cameron, Dorothy O.  “The Symbolism of the Ancestors.”  ReVision 20.3 (Winter 1998): 6-11. (SA.)

Caruana, Wally.  Aboriginal Art.  New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, 2003. (AA.)

Dockendorf, Maureen E. J.  

Within the Labyrinth: Facilitating Teacher

Research Groups. Diss.  Simon Fraser University (Canada), 1995. Ann

Arbor, MI: ProQuest/UMI, 1995. (Publication No. AAT MM06636.) (WL.)

Eliade, Mircea.  

The Myth of the Eternal Return: Or Cosmos and History.

Trans. Philip Mairet. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971.

(MER.)

Evans, Sir Arthur.  

“The Ring of Nestora; A Glimpse into the Minoan After-

World.”  Journal of Hellenic Studies 45: Part 1 (1925): 1-75. (RN.)

Fierz-David, Linda.  

Women’s Dionysian Initiation: The Villa of Mysteries in

Pompeii.  1957. Trans. Gladys Phelan. Dallas, TX: Spring Publications,

1988. (WDIV.)

Fleming, Andrew.  

“The Myth of the Mother Goddess.”  World Archaeology 1

(1969): 247-261. (MMG.)

Gerzon, Mark.  

Coming into Our Own: Understanding the Adult

Metamorphosis.  New York, NY: Delacorte Press, 1992. (COO.)

Giedion, Siegfried.  

The Eternal Present: The Beginnings of Art: A Contribution

On Constancy and Change.  Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts; 1957.

London England: Oxford University Press, 1962. (EP.)

Gimbutas, Marija Alseikaite.  Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe, 6500-3500

BC: Myths and Cult Images.  2nd ed. London, England: Thames and Hudson, Ltd., 1984. [The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe, 7000-3500 BC: Myths, Legends, and Cult Images.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1974.] (GGE.)

Haarmann, Harald.  

Early Civilization and Literacy in Europe: An Inquiry into

Cultural Continuity in the Mediterranean World.  New York, NY: Mouton de Gruyter, 1996. (ECLE.)

Hooke, Samuel H.  

The Labyrinth: Further Studies in the Relation Between

Myth and Ritual in the Ancient World.  London, England: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1874. (LFS.)

Johnson, Buffie, and Tracy Boyd.

 “The Eternal Weaver.”  Heresies: A Feminist Publication on Art and Politics. (Revised Edition). 2.1, Issue 5 (1982): 64-69. (EW.)

Kern, Hermann.  

Through the Labyrinth: Designs and Meanings Over 5,000

Years.  Munich, Germany: Prestel, 2000. (TTL.)

Knight, W. F. Jackson.  

Myth and Legend at Troy. (No publisher identified.) 1935.  (MLT.)

______.  Cumaean Gates: A Reference of the Sixth Aeneid to the Initiation

Pattern.  Oxford, England: B. Blackwell, 1936. (CG.)

Kraft, John.  The Goddess in the Labyrinth.  Abo, Finland: Abo Akademi, 1987. (GL.)

Lincoln, Bruce.  

Emerging from the Chrysalis: Studies in Rituals of Women' s

Initiation.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981. (EFTC.)

Lonegren, Sig.  

Labyrinths: Ancient Myths & Modern Uses.  New York, NY:

Sterling Pub. Co, 2001. (AMMU.)

Makilam.  

The Magical Life of Berber Women in Kabylia.  New York,

NY: Peter Lang, 2007. (ML.)

Matthews, W. H.  

Mazes and Labyrinths: A General Account of Their

History and Development.  London, England: Longmans,

Green & Co., 1922. (MAL.)

Marshack, Alexander.  

The Roots of Civilization: The Cognitive

Beginnings of Man’s First Art, Symbol and Notation.  Mount  Kisco, NY: Moyer Bell, 1991. (TROC.)

Meaden, George Terence.

 The Goddess of Stones: The Language of the

Megaliths.  London, England: Souvenir Press, 1991.152-161, 199-214. (GS.)

Purce, Jill.

 The Mystic Spiral: Journey of the Soul.  London, England: Thames

and Hudson, 1974. (MS)

Scully, Vincent.  

The Earth, The Temple, The Gods.  1962. New Haven, CT:

Yale University Press, 1979. (ETG.)

Sholem, Jane.  

Listening to the Labyrinth: An Organic and Intuitive Inquiry.

Diss.  Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, 1999. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest/UMI, 1999. (Publication No. AAT 9936945.) (LTT.)

Smith, Evans Lansing.  

Ricorso and Revelation: An Archetypal Poetics of

Modernism.  Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1995. (RAR.)

Twohig, Elizabeth Shee.

 The Megalithic Art of Western Europe.  Oxford,

England: Oxford University Press, 1981. (MAWE.)

Uytterhoeven, Inge, and Ingrid Blom-Boer.  

“New Light on the Egyptian

Labyrinth: Evidence from a Survey at Hawara.”  The Journal of Egyptian

Archaeology Vol. 88 (2002): 111-120. (NLEL.)

Waters, Frank and Oswald White Bear Fredericks.  

Book of the Hopi.  Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, 1977. (BH.)

Woodman, Marion.  

“Chrysalis: Am I Really?”  The Pregnant Virgin: A

Process of Psychological Transformation.  Toronto, Canada: Inner City Books, 1985. 13-32. (CAIR.)

Further research on parthenogenesis/self-seeding/self-making/autopoiesis and 21 century routine aspects of self-fertilized eggs = two X chromosomes:

Capra, Fritjof.

The Web of Life: A New Understanding of Living Systems.  New York, NY: Anchor, 1996. 194-221. (WOL.)

Holt, Jim.

 “Single-Egg Theory: Immaculate Conception without God.”

Lingua Franca 11.7 (Oct. 2001): 68. http://linguafranca.mirror.theinfo.org/print/0110/hypothesis.html

Margulis, Lynn.  

Symbiosis in Cell Evolution: Microbial Communities

in the Archean and Proterozoic Eons.  New York, NY:

Freeman, 1993. (SCE.)

Morowitz, Harold J., and James S. Trefil.

 The Facts of Life: Science and the

Abortion Controversy.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1992.

(FL.)

Murdock, D. M.

 “Was the Persian Goddess Anahita the Pre-Christian

Virgin Mother of Mithra?”  Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata.  Ed. Payam Nabarz.  London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 94-116. (WPG.)

Perlman, David.

 “Survival of the Fittest Females.”  San Francisco Chronicle

22 Mar. 2004: A4. (SFF.)

Rigoglioso, Marguerite.  

Bearing the Holy Ones: A Study of the Cult of Divine

Birth in Ancient Greece.  Diss. California Institute of Integral Studies, 2007. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest/UMI, 2008. (Publication No. AAT 3286688.) (BHO.)

_____.  The Cult of Divine Birth.  New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

Further research on Upper Paleolithic and Neolithic script of spirals,

concentric circles, meanders, and labyrinths beginning in the 7th millennium BCE:

Gimbutas, Marija Alseikaite.  

The Civilization of the Goddess: The World of

Europe.  San Francisco, CA: Harper, 1991. 308-321. (COG.)

 

For exceptional illustrations of the spiral in Megalithic Europe:

Twohig, Elizabeth Shee.  

The Megalithic Art of Western Europe.  Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1981. (MAWE.)

 

Further research on Mycenaean pillar worship or pillar culture and the Labrys:

Evans, Sir Arthur.  

The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult and Its Mediterranean

Relations: With Illustrations from Recent Cretan Finds.  London, England: Macmillan, 1901. (MTPC.)

 

Further research on Amenemhat III’s Labyrinth Temple:

Uytterhoeven, Inge, and Ingrid Blom-Boer.

 “New Light on the Egyptian

Labyrinth: Evidence from a Survey at Hawara.”  The Journal of

Egyptian Archaeology Vol. 88 (2002): 111-120. (NLEL.)

ENTRY 16 GODDESS SITES AND ARTIFACT IMAGE COLLECTIONS

Placholder_0001

Placholder_0001

Placholder_0001

Placholder_0001

GSA TEXT REFERENCES

IMAGE: ENGRAVINGS OF LABYRINTHINE OWL EYES: GAVRINIS, FRANCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: RELIEF ENGRAVING OF LABYRINTHINE OWL EYES PLUS THREE CUP – HOLES.

CO_FRA_S3_R2_SL3_S10.jpg

SHOT ON LOCATION: GAVR’INNIS (OR GAVRINIS) IN THE MORBIHAN GULF: BRITTANY, FRANCE.

NOTE 1: ALSO SEE TWOHIG’S, THE MEGALITHIC ART OF WESTERN EUROPE. (MAWE.)

NOTE 2: “[THE SPIRAL MAY] BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER (MLW: 18: RGS).”

NOTE 3: PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI MAY BE INTERPRETED AS OWL EYES?

 

IMAGE: ELEMENTARY SPIRAL: MAL’TA, SIBERIA.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: SPIRAL RENDITION ON IVORY BUCKLE, ICE AGE. *

SHOT ON LOCATION: ILLUSTRATION/IMAGE OF ELEMENTARY SPIRAL: MAL’TA, SIBERIA IN PROCESS.

NOTE 1: * (TROC 337, FIG. 202 C.)

NOTE 2: “[THE SPIRAL MAY] BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER (MLW: 18: RGS).” ILLUSTRATION TBD.

NOTE 3: PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI MAY BE INTERPRETED AS OWL EYES?

PHOTO NOTE: FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND IMAGES:

RESOURCE: (MUSEUM ART RESOURCE.)

RESOURCE: (BRITISH MUSEUM: LONDON, ENGLAND.)

RESOURCE: (ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & ART.)

 

IMAGE: LABYRINTHINE SEALS: SESKLO, GREECE.

ILLUSTRATION © GSA. PROTOTYPE EXAMPLES OF LABYRINTHINE SEALS, SESKLO, GREECE. (COG: 317, FIG. 8-18.)

LABYRINTHINE SEALS: SESKLO, GREECE. ILLUSTRATION/LOCATE IMAGE.

NOTE 1: FIELDWORK PROJECT.

PHOTO NOTE: FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND IMAGES:

RESOURCE: (ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & ART.)

RESOURCE: (BRITISH MUSEUM: LONDON, ENGLAND.)

 

IMAGE: STONE CIRCLES: GOLAN HEIGHT, ISRAEL.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: STONE CIRCLES IN GOLAN HEIGHTS, ORIGINALLY THE LEVANT.

CU_BAR_S1_R4_SL2_S17.jpg CO_BAR_S1_R4_SL2_S17_ILL.

GSA ILLUSTRATION OF STONE CIRCLES: GOLAN HEIGHT, ISRAEL.

 

IMAGE: LABYRINTH: SIDE (CYME), (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: LABYRINTH IN AGORA-LIBRARY AT SIDE (CYME), TURKEY.

CO_TUR_S82_R3_SL4_SBc46

SHOT ON LOCATION: SIDE (CYME), (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

NOTE 1: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: DOUBLE SPIRALS ON TOMB DOOR #34: CASTELLUCCIO, SICILY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: CASTELLUCCIO TOMB DOOR #34 INCLUDING TWO SETS OF DOUBLE SPIRALS OR OWL EYES AND ‘M’ SIGN ON THE LOWER REGISTER.

CU_SIC_S17_R3_SL3_S33

SHOT ON LOCATION: MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO REGIONALE PAOLO ORSI: SYRACUSE, SICILY.

NOTE 1: THE SPIRAL MAY “BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER.” (MLW: 18.)

NOTE 2: ONE OF THE EARLIEST SYMBOLIC SYMBOLS IS THE ‘M’ OR ABBREVIATED ZIG-ZAG INDICATING AQUATIC SIGNIFICANCE, AMNIOTIC FLUID, OR MOTHER. (LOG: 19.)

NOTE 3: ANONYMOUS. "ORLY GOLDWASSER RESPONDS.”  BIBLICAL ARCHAEOLOGY REVIEW 36.5 (SEP.–OCT. 2010): 11. (OG.)

NOTE 4: PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI MAY BE INTERPRETED AS OWL EYES?

NOTE 5: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1998.

 

IMAGE: MALTA SPIRALS: TARXIEN, MALTA.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: AT TARXIEN TEMPLE.

C0_MAL_S2_R3_SL5_S20.jpg

SHOT ON LOCATION: TARXIEN TEMPLE, MALTA.

NOTE 1: “[THE SPIRAL MAY] BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER (MLW: 18: RGS).”

NOTE 2: PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI MAY BE INTERPRETED AS OWL EYES?

NOTE 3: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1983-1989.

 

IMAGE: CRUCIFORM LABYRINTH: CO. WICKLOW, IRELAND.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: CRUCIFORM LABYRINTH FROM CO. WICKLOW NR.

HOLLYWOOD.

CO_IRE_ S1_R4_SL1_S16.

SHOT ON LOCATION: NATIONAL MUSEUM OF IRELAND: DUBLIN, IRELAND.

NOTE 1: SIMILAR LABYRINTH DESIGN TO THE HOPI INDIAN SPIRAL AND MINOAN

COIN. (TK: 83.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1989.

 

IMAGE: UNICURSAL SERPENT LABYRINTH DESIGN: IRELAND.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: WOODEN UNICURSAL SERPENT LABYRINTH DESIGN FROM IRELAND.

CO_IRE_S1_R4_SL4_S19.

SHOT ON LOCATION: NATIONAL MUSEUM OF IRELAND: DUBLIN, IRELAND.

NOTE 1: FIELDWORK 1989.

 

IMAGE: SPIRALS: NEWGRANGE, IRELAND.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: NEWGRANGE TUMULUS IRELAND SPIRALS.

CO_IRE_S4_R3_SL5_S15.

SHOT ON LOCATION: NEWGRANGE IN THE BOYNE VALLEY: COUNTY MEATH, IRELAND.

NOTE 1: THE SPIRAL MAY “BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER.” (MLW: 18: RGS).

NOTE 2: PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI MAY BE INTERPRETED AS OWL EYES?

NOTE 3: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1989.

 

IMAGE: SPIRALS, BRONZE AGE ARM BAND: FRANCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: SPIRALS ON A BRONZE AGE ARM BAND.

CU_NPF_ S5_R3_SL4_S14.jpg

SHOT ON LOCATION: MUSÉE DES ANTIQUITÉS NATIONALES: SAINT-GERMAIN-EN-LAYE, FRANCE, JUST OUTSIDE OF PARIS.

NOTE 1: “[THE SPIRAL MAY] BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER (MLW: 18: RGS).”

NOTE 2: PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI MAY BE INTERPRETED AS OWL EYES?

NOTE 3: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1989.

 

IMAGE: ANCIENT LABYRINTH SPIRAL PROTOTYPE: NEWGRANGE, IRELAND.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: THRESHOLD KERBSTONE 1, NUMEROUS MEGALITHIC ENGRAVINGS INC. COILS, FAMOUS TRIPLE SPIRAL LABYRINTH ON STONE C10 (GS: 121), CHEVRONS PLUS VULVA ENTRANCE ALSO RICH IN SPIRAL SYMBOLS ON BOTTOM CENTER.

CO_IRE_S4_R4_SL5_S17.

SHOT ON LOCATION: NEWGRANGE IN THE BOYNE VALLEY: COUNTY MEATH, IRELAND.

NOTE 1: “THE RELIGIOUS FERVOR OF THE PEOPLE OF THE BOYNE MOVED THEM TO CROWN THIS TOMB WITH A MASSIVE TUMULUS MORE IMPOSING THAN ANY YET ERECTED IN EUROPE (IP).”

NOTE 2: “[THE SPIRAL MAY] BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER (MLW: 18: RGS).”

NOTE 3: FOLLOW ONE’S FINGER BOTH IN AND THEN OUT AGAIN OF THE TRIPLE SPIRAL, LABYRINTH PROTOTYPE, ALSO KNOWN AS THE SPIRAL OF LIFE.

NOTE 4: THE TRIPLE SPIRAL ENCODED AT NEWGRANGE, SPECIFICALLY CELEBRATES THE TRIPLE FACED FEMALE METAPHOR AS COSMIC DYNAMIC OF CREATIVITY, GIVEN THAT IT IS LIT UP AT THE MOMENT OF WINTER SOLSTICE, THE SEASONAL MOMENT THAT CELEBRATES ORIGINS AND EARTH-SUN CREATIVITY. (PGS: 37) (ALSO SEE WHITEHEAD’S THREEFOLD, “CATEGORY OF THE ULTIMATE.”)

NOTE 5: PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI MAY BE INTERPRETED AS OWL EYES?

NOTE 6: PETRIE, FLINDERS.  DECORATIVE PATTERNS OF THE ANCIENT WORLD. 1930.

LONDON, ENGLAND: BRACKEN BOOKS, 1995. (DPA: XXXIII, #LH 6.)

NOTE 7: TRIPLE SPIRAL LABYRINTH IS LOGO OF THE PREHISTORIC SOCIETY OF BRITAIN.

NOTE 8: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1989.

PHOTO NOTE: FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND IMAGES OF THE TRIPLE SPIRAL LABYRINTH ON STONE C10 (GS: 121) AT NEWGRANGE, IRELAND:

RESOURCE: (ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & ART.)

RESOURCE: (MUSEUM ART RESOURCE.)

 

IMAGE: SQUARE LABYRINTH ON COIN: KNOSSOS, CRETE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: SQUARE LABYRINTH DESIGNED BY DAEDALUS FOR MINOS: KNOSSOS, CRETE.

ILLUSTRATION/IMAGE OF SQUARE LABYRINTH ON COIN: KNOSSOS, CRETE.

NOTE 1: FIELDWORK PROJECT.

PHOTO NOTE: FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND IMAGES:

RESOURCE: (ARCHAEOLOGY, ARCHITECTURE & ART.)

RESOURCE: (MUSEUM ART RESOURCE.)

IMAGE: ASPHODEL LONG AT GLASTONBURY TOR: SOMERSET, ENGLAND.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: ASPHODEL LONG AT GLASTONBURY TOR, SOMERSET, ENGLAND. PATHWAY UP GLASTONBURY TOR INCLUDES THREE CONTINUOUS TERRACES = AN ADAPTATION OF THE CRETAN LABYRINTH THAT IS ALSO FOUND AMONG THE HOPI INDIANS OF ARIZONA.

CO_GLA_S2_R4_SL5_S25

SHOT ON LOCATION: GLASTONBURY: SOMERSET, ENGLAND.

NOTE 1: FIELDWORK PROJECT BELTANE 1987.

 

IMAGE: AERIAL VIEW OF GLASTONBURY TOR: SOMERSET, ENGLAND.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: AERIAL VIEW OF THE PATHWAY UP ENGLAND’S GLASTONBURY TOR INCLUDING THREE CONTINUOUS TERRACES = AN ADAPTATION OF THE CRETAN LABYRINTH THAT IS ALSO FOUND AMONG THE HOPI INDIANS OF ARIZONA.

CO_GLA_ S2_R4_SL5_S25A

SHOT ON LOCATION: GLASTONBURY TOR, ENGLAND.

NOTE 1: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1997.

 

IMAGE: DOUBLE AXE, PROTOTYPE FOR THE CEREMONIAL FIGURE EIGHT: MALTA.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: DOUBLE AXE CONJOINED AT APEXES WITH TWO HALF MOON BLADES AS AN OBJECT OF VENERATION – OR - SCHEMATIZED BUTTERFLY WINGS?

CO_MGR_S4_R2_SL4_S11.

SHOT ON LOCATION: HERAKLION MUSEUM: CRETE, GREECE.

NOTE 1: THIS DOUBLE AXE WITH TWO HALF MOONS MAY HAVE BEEN A PROTOTYPE FOR THE CEREMONIAL FIGURE EIGHT AXE OR LABRYS * ALSO FOUND THROUGHOUT THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST.

NOTE 2: * CAMERON SUGGESTS THAT A MORE APPROPRIATE TERM FOR THE DOUBLE AXE/LABRYS IS LABIUM. (SA: 10.)

NOTE 3: TO–SCALE PROTOTYPE.

NOTE 4: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1982-1985.

PHOTO NOTE: BULGARIAN DOUBLE AXE CONJOINED AT APEXES,

http://archaeologymatters2.blogspot.com/2011/07/double-axe-found-in-bugaria.html

 

IMAGE: MONARCH BUTTERFLY, GREECE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: MONARCH BUTTERFLY INTERPRETATIONS INCLUDE: THE LABRYS; LABIA; CHRYSALISES; DOUBLE AXE CONJOINED AT APEXES; AND THE FIGURE 8. (RGS.)

CO_MGR_S4_R2_SL5_S16.

SHOT ON LOCATION: RHODES, GREECE.

NOTE 1: MINOAN – MYCENAEAN BUTTERFLIES ARE FREQUENTLY PORTRAYED WITH DOUBLE AXE WINGS OR CONJOINED TRIANGLES AT THE APEXES. (SEE, MMRS: 195. FIG. 90, #41.)

NOTE 2:

THE TWO – WINGED BUTTERFLY IMAGED BY THE GOLD PENDANTS FROM

THE THIRD SHAFT GRAVE IS PRACTICALLY IDENTICAL WITH THAT ENGRAVED ON WHAT SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN A VOTIVE BRONZE [DOUBLE] AXE, FOUND AT PHAESTOS [M. M. III] WHERE ITS RELIGIOUS IMPORT CAN HARDLY BE DOUBTED (RN: 57; RGS).

NOTE 3:

‘THE BUTTERFLY/DOUBLE – AXE SYMBOL COULD REPRESENT [THE] OPENED LABIA’ (SA: 10, N. 7; RGS). ADDING TO THE BUTTERFLY – LABIA CONSIDERATION, ARCHAEOLOGIST SIR ARTHUR EVANS ‘PUBLISHED A SERIES OF CHRYSALISES, BUTTERFLIES, AND GODDESSES RELATED TO CHRYSALISES OR WITH BUTTERFLY WINGS (RN: 53-71). HE INTERPRETED THE CHRYSALIS AS AN EMBLEM OF NEW LIFE AFTER DEATH’ (GGE: 186-7; RGS). (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

 

IMAGE: DOUBLE AXE, PROTOTYPE FOR THE CEREMONIAL FIGURE EIGHT: MALTA.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: DOUBLE AXE CONJOINED AT APEXES: TARXIEN, MALTA.

CO_MAL_S2_R4_SL4_S21.

SHOT ON LOCATION: TARXIEN TEMPLE: MALTA.

NOTE 1: THE DOUBLE AXE MAY HAVE BEEN A PROTOTYPE FOR THE CEREMONIAL FIGURE EIGHT AXE OR LABRYS * FOUND THROUGHOUT THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST.

NOTE 2:

THE LABRYS IS A MANIFESTATION OF INCANTATION RITES AND METAMORPHOSIS OR RE – GENERATIVE RITUALS. INTERPRETATIONS OF THE LABRYS INCLUDE: THE LABIA; BUTTERFLY; CHRYSALISES; DOUBLE AXE CONJOINED AT APEXES; FIGURE 8 (ETERNITY); EARTH’S CENTER; AND THE WAXING AND WANING MOON. SIGNIFICANCE MAY BE A HOMECOMING TO SELF AND MOTHER (OR COSMOCENTRIC MATRIX) THAT SPARKS OR ENHANCES BE-ING AND BE-COMING AS IN RE-CREATION I.E. THELYTOKOUS PARTHENOGENESIS/AUTOPOIESIS (RGS).

NOTE 3: * CAMERON SUGGESTS THAT A MORE APPROPRIATE TERM FOR THE DOUBLE AXE IS LABIUM. (SA: 10.)

NOTE 4: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1980-1989.

 

IMAGE: GODDESS WEARING PENDANT WITH SYMBOL X: PALERMO, SICILY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: POSSIBLE RITUAL OR CEREMONIAL PENDANT WITH ‘X’ WORN BY A MOTHER GODDESS (POWER BEHIND THE THRONE) WHO NURSES AND BESTOWS LINEAGE.

CU_SIC_S18_R3_SL3_S7

SHOT ON LOCATION: MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO REGIONALE: PALERMO, SICILY.

NOTE 1:

THE X, WHICH IN OLD CANAANITE ALPHABET IS THE SAME AS, THE LETTER TAW MEANT ‘HOLY FOR THE GODDESS.’ SO WERE CAKES AND BREADS ALSO MARKED THAT WERE DEDICATED TO THE GODDESS (TVG: 188, n. 64) (THINK HOT CROSS BUNS ON EASTER/EOSTRA/PASSOVER (RGS)).

NOTE 2:

CONCERNING THE USE OF THE MARK ’X’ IN THE NEAR EASTERN RELIGIONS, URS WINTER OP. CIT. 301 QUOTES O. KEEL WHO DISCOVERED THE X ON THE FOREHEAD OF CERTAIN NEAR-EASTERN STATUETTES IS A SIGN WHICH IDENTIFIED THE WOMAN AS BELONGING TO THE GODDESS (TVG: 188, n. 64).

NOTE 3: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1998.

 

IMAGE: X TOMB DOOR #32, CASTELLUCCIO, SICILY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: CASTELLUCCIO TOMB DOOR #32 IN THE X SYMBOL–LETTER OF THE X.

CU_SIC_S18_R3_SL1_S26

SHOT ON LOCATION: MUSEO ARCHEOLOGICO REGIONALE PAOLO ORSI: SYRACUSE, SICILY.

NOTE 1:

THE X, WHICH IN OLD CANAANITE ALPHABET IS THE SAME AS, THE LETTER TAW MEANT ‘HOLY FOR THE GODDESS’ (TVG: 188, n. 64).

NOTE 2:

THE SYMBOL-LETTER ‘V’ IS IN THE ICONIC CHEVRON FAMILY (LOG: 15; GGE: 117) INCLUDING THE DOUBLE V; ‘CHEVRON AND ‘CROSS-BAND’ OR X FORMED BY TWO V’S TOUCHING AT THE APEX’ (LOG: 11); TRIANGLE-SHAPED VOTIVE DOUBLE AXE; AND NEOLITHIC ANTHROPOMORPHIC HOURGLASSES, AMONG OTHERS (LOG: 239-243).

NOTE 3:

SACRED BREAD & CAKES WITH AN ‘X’ ON TOP WERE BAKED TO INANNA. (TAI: 155.) ALSO SEE URS WINTER, OP. CIT. P. 569 CONCERNING REMARKS ON TERRA-COTTA FIGURES WHICH MAY REPRESENT BAKED GOODS WITH THE SIGN OF AN X (TVG: 188, n. 64).

NOTE 4: AN INTERPRETATION OF PAIRED SPIRAL OCULI IS OWL EYES.

NOTE 5: FOR THE FIRST RE-GENESIS DISCUSSION ON THE X AND V, SEE RGS: 70,000, BLOMBOS CAVE X AND V SHAPED ENGRAVINGS.

NOTE 6: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1998.

 

IMAGE: SPIRAL SERPENT: EPHESUS, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: BRONZE SERPENT AS SPIRAL.

CO_TUR_S97_R2_SL2_SBg15

SHOT ON LOCATION: EPHESUS MUSEUM (EFES MUZESI): SELCUK, (ANATOLIA)  TURKEY.

NOTE 1: “[THE SPIRAL MAY] BE THOUGHT OF AS AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER (MLW: 18: RGS).”

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: LABYRINTHINE WOOD CARVINGS: GORDION, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: WOOD CARVINGS ON TABLE INCLUDING GEOMETRIC DESIGN SIMILAR TO A FOUR DIRECTIONAL LABYRINTH, GORDION, ANATOLIA. ALSO NOTE THE PATTERN OF THE CENTER LABYRINTH SUGGESTS FALLOPIAN TUBES / UTERUS * FREQUENTLY ATTRIBUTED TO HATHOR’S SPIRAL-BOUND HAIR MOTIF.

SLIDE LOCATION TURKEY, SHEET 59, ROW 1, SLEEVE 3, SLIDE #711, 700 BCE.

CO_TUR_S59_R1_SL3_S711

SHOT ON LOCATION: GORDION, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

NOTE 1 SEE: * CAMERON’S SYMBOLS OF BIRTH AND DEATH IN THE NEOLITHIC (SBDN.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: NAUTILUS SPIRAL SHELL, ENGLAND.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: NAUTILUS SHELL = EQUIANGULAR SPIRAL OF EQUALLY SPACED UNICURSAL LABYRINTH DESIGNS.

SHOT ON LOCATION: ENGLAND.

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NOTE 1: KERENYI THEORIZES THAT THE LABYRINTH, SPIRAL, AND MEANDER ARE [UNICURSAL] PATHS OR JOURNEYS IN WHICH ONE RE-TURNS TO THE BEGINNING. (D: 92-96.) (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: SPIRAL CAN BE COMPARED TO “AN ELEMENTARY UNICURSAL LABYRINTH AS THEY HAVE AN INDIRECT PATH LEADING TO A HIDDEN CENTER.” (MLW: 18.)

NOTE 3: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.