ENTRY 182

585-300, Lydia Replaces Phrygia, Anatolia

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INTRODUCTORY CITATIONS

Lydia’s Anahita –Anaitis.

 

Classical authors attest the spread

of the cult [culture] of Anaitis to Armenia,

Cappadocia, Pontus and especially

Lydia in Asia Minor.

In Lydia, Anahita–Anaitis was

assimilated to Artemis Ephesia

and to Cybele the

great mother goddess of Anatolia.

(WPG: 100.)

ENTRY NARRATIVE

As noted earlier, this period gave rise to the indigenous Lycians, Lydians, and Carians in Anatolia in tandem with the demise and destruction of the Phrygians. (RGS.) This epoch is significant for numerous reasons including considerable cultural and architectural contributions such as the Telmessus Necropolis, Nereid Monument, the Harpy Frieze, and Dalyan Temple-Tombs that continue to resonate throughout the centuries.

[This period introduced] new poetic verse; stunning marble monuments; Cycladic Art; Ionian modification of Aeolic architecture; plus unique sculpture that spotlighted ancient Anatolian traditions such as elaborate rock-hewn tombs with temple-like facades. As a result, the Anatolian traditions not only survived ‘as a successful kind of blend through the Roman period and up to the spread of Christianity’ but continue to influence the 21st century CE (ACRT: 15-17; RGS: 650-550, Anatolia).

 

Also embedded in this ‘on–again, off-again’ accord, discord and related

negotiations with various tribes and cultures including the Persians and the Greeks, was a further emergence of assimilated deities. “A Graeco–Persian– Anatolian fusion occurs in Lydia in the assimilation of Anahita, the Persian goddess of fertilizing waters, to Cybele and to Artemis Ephesia. From this blending, Cybele is known as Meter Anahita, Artemis Anahita, or the Persian Artemis (FOG: 208).” In Lydia, she is also known as the Great Mother especially in Cappadocia. (HG: 138.)

 

Among the Persians, Aphrodite was fused with Artemis, Anaitis and Anahita. (AR: 130.) Anahita (translation undefiled) is hailed by the epithet of High Hara, patron goddess of pregnant women. (TSB: 144.) According to epigraphic documents regarding the multiplicity of syncretisms, foam-born Aphrodite was also interwoven with Ashtart (planet “Venus”), Isis, and Atargatis. (AR: 132.)

 

Of further interest is the relationship between Anahita and Nana. “Iranian Anahita, who was ultimately a river goddess, later assumed the functions and manifestations of the Mesopotamian Nanâ (NTS: 539).” This is of special resonance given how frequently elder women and grandmothers throughout the world go by the endearing names of Nanâ, Nanaia, or Naunie. (WPG: 100-102.)

Additionally, Anahita was decidedly omnipotent, propagating fecundity, wisdom, and valor in war (API: 27) driving a chariot drawn by four horses, ‘Wind, Rain, Clouds, and Hail.’ (HG: 138.) * In Old Persian texts, “she was considered to be second in importance only [to] the supreme god, Ahura Mazda: ‘by the will of Ahura Mazda, Anahita, and Mithra … may Ahura Mazda, Anahita, and Mithra protect me.’” (API: 27). Although assimilated, but with lesser stature into monotheistic Zoroastrian by the name of Ardvi Sura Ananite (Naheed), previously she was the central Mother Goddess in the Median civilization (728-550 BCE.) In addition to Lydia, other Anahita altars were in “Babylonia, Susa, Ekbatana, Persepolis, Baktra, Damaskos, and Sardes.” (HG: 138.)

* A later version of Anahita is the theme “of the famous pre-Raphaelite sculpture The Horses of Anahita and painting Anahita the Flight of Night by William Morris Hunt, (1824-1879)” (IAL: 23.) In 1878 CE, Hunt was commissioned to paint the Flight of Night mural for the New York state capital in Albany, NY. (AW: 89.)


Nabarz, Payam.  “Introduction to Anahita the Lady of Persia.” Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata. Ed. Payam Nabarz. London,

England: Avalonia, 2013. 17-40. (IAL.)

Vasseghi, Sheda.  “Anahita and William Morris Hunt.”  Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata.  Ed. Payam Nabarz. London,

England: Avalonia, 2013. 86-93. (AW.)

FURTHER RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS

Further Anatolian plus Hittite research:

7250-6150, Çatal Hüyük, Anatolia (Central Turkey); 7100-6300, Cathedra Goddess of the Beasts, Çatal Hüyük, Anatolia; 7040-3500, Hacilar, Anatolia; 4400-2500, Kurgan Invasions Bring Catastrophic Destruction to Old Europe; 4000, Alaca Hüyük, Anatolia; 3500, Anatolia, Arinna, and Other Goddesses; 3000, Founding of Troy; 3000-2000, Anatolia, Kubaba and the Hittites; 2500, Troy, Anatolia; 2000, Anatolia; 2000, Indo-European Tribes; 1790-1700, Goddess of Kultepe, Anatolia; 1450-1260, Hattusa and Yazilikaya, Anatolia; 1400, Cybele and Buyukkale/ Bogazkoy, Anatolia; 1320, Palestine - Assyria - Exodus of Hebrews from Egypt; 1260, Hittites, Anatolia; 1200, Perge, Anatolia; 1200-1000, Phrygians in Anatolia: 1184, Hittites and Trojan War, c. 1200; 1100-800, Mediterranean Dark Ages; 1050-850, Kubaba and Kubat, Anatolia; 750-650, Cybele and King Midas, Anatolia; 650-550, Anatolia; 630-620, Goddess Kore, Izmir Turkey; 588-587, Cybele’s Dedication, Rome; 282-263, Demeter’s Priene Temple, Anatolia; 204, Cybele to Rome; 200, The Great Cybele: Magna Mater at Santoni Sicily; and 200, Greece and Pergamon, Anatolia. (RGS.) (For CE entries see: 324, St. Peter’s Basilica; 432-440, Santa Maria Maggiore; 410, Cybele and Fall of Rome; 1207-1273, Rumi and Mother; and 1870, Lyon’s Basilica Built Over Cybele’s Pagan Temple.) (RG.)

BIBLIOGRAPHIC CONCIDERATIONSDATIONS

Further research on Elamite Goddesses including:

Anaitis; Anahita; Anahiti; Aredvi Sura Kiririsha plus Mashti:

Azarpay, G.  “Nanâ, the Sumero-Akkadian Goddess of Transoxiana.”  Journal of the American Oriental Society 96. 4 (Oct.-Dec., 1976): 536-542. (NTS.)

Dexter, Miriam Robbins.  Whence the Goddesses: A Source Book.

New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1990. (WGS.)

Mahmoudi, Behzad, et al.  “Sassanid Stucco Discoveries in the Barz-E-

Qawela in Lorestan Province of Iran.”  Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess  and Zoroastrian Yazata.  Ed. Payam Nabarz. London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 203-215. (SSDB.)

Murdock, D. M.  “Was the Persian Goddess Anahita the Pre-Christian

Virgin Mother of Mithra?”  Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata.  Ed. Payam Nabarz. London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 94-116. (WPG.)

Nabarz, Payam, Ed.  Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and

Zoroastrian Yazata.  London, England: Avalonia, 2013. (AAG.)

Nabarz, Payam.  “Introduction to Anahita the Lady of Persia.”

Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata. Ed. Payam Nabarz. London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 17-40. (IAL.)

Patai, Raphael.  “The Goddess Asherah.”  Journal of Near Eastern

Studies 24.1/2 (Jan. – Apr. 1965): 37-52. (TGA.)

_____.  The Hebrew Goddess.  1967. Philadelphia, PA: Ktav Publishing

House, 1990. (HG.)

Roux, Georges.  Ancient Iraq.  New York, NY: Penguin, 1992. (AI.)

Sadrudin, Seyed, et al.  “Politics of Hot and Mineral Springs and

Anahita: A Short Study in Parthian and Sassanian Period.” Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata.  Ed. Payam Nabarz. London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 184-189. (PHM.)

Smith, William Robertson, Ed.  The Encyclopedia Britannica: A

Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature.  9th Ed. Edinburgh, Scotland: Adam & Charles Black, 1889. (ENBR.)

Vasseghi, Sheda.  “Anahita and William Morris Hunt.”  Anahita:

Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata. Ed. Payam Nabarz. London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 86-93. (AW.)

Zour, Maryam, Saman Farzin, and Babak Aryanpour.  “Women in

Ancient Elam (According to the Archaeological and Historical Evidence).”  Anahita: Ancient Persian Goddess and Zoroastrian Yazata.  Ed. Payam Nabarz. London, England: Avalonia, 2013. 216-235. (WA.)

ENTRY 182 GODDESS SITES AND ARTIFACT IMAGE COLLECTIONS

GSA TEXT REFERENCES

IMAGE: TOMB OF AMYNTAS: FETHIYE, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: ROCK CUT VERTICAL CLIFF TEMPLE TOMB OF AMYNTAS WITH IONIC COLUMNS AND PORTICO INC. FALSE DOOR TO A MEMORIAL CHAMBER: EASTERN CLIFF OF LYCIAN TELMESSUS NECROPOLIS. ACCORDING TO HERODOTUS, THIS TEMPLE TOMB WAS ALSO THE LOCATION OF ANCIENT SERPENT SEERS-ORACLE SCHOLARS INC. ALEXANDER.

CO_TUR_S90_R1_SL1_SBe29

SHOT ON LOCATION: CLIFF FACE: FETHIYE, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

NOTE 1:

THIS EPOCH IS SIGNIFICANT FOR NUMEROUS REASONS INCLUDING CONSIDERABLE CULTURAL AND ARCHITECTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS SUCH AS THE LYCIAN TELMESSUS NECROPOLIS, NEREID MONUMENT, THE HARPY FRIEZE, DALYAN TEMPLE-TOMBS, ETC. THAT HAVE CONTINUED TO RESONATE THROUGHOUT THE CENTURIES (RGS).  … ANATOLIAN TRADITIONS NOT ONLY SURVIVED ‘AS A SUCCESSFUL KIND OF BLEND THROUGH THE ROMAN PERIOD AND UP TO THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY’ BUT CONTINUE TO INFLUENCE THE 21ST CENTURY CE (ACRT: 15-17; RGS).  (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: LYCIAN TOMBS: DALYAN, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: BLUE BOATS IN DALYAN ISLET BELOW NECROPOLIS OF LYCIAN TEMPLE TOMBS (ANCIENT CAUNUS/KAUNOS).

CO_TUR_S91_R2_SL1_SBe51

SHOT ON LOCATION: LYCIAN TOMBS: DALYAN ISLET, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

NOTE 1:

THIS EPOCH IS SIGNIFICANT FOR NUMEROUS REASONS INCLUDING CONSIDERABLE CULTURAL AND ARCHITECTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS SUCH AS THE LYCIAN TELMESSUS NECROPOLIS, NEREID MONUMENT, THE HARPY FRIEZE, DALYAN TEMPLE-TOMBS, ETC. THAT HAVE CONTINUED TO RESONATE THROUGHOUT THE CENTURIES (RGS).  … ANATOLIAN TRADITIONS NOT ONLY SURVIVED ‘AS A SUCCESSFUL KIND OF BLEND THROUGH THE ROMAN PERIOD AND UP TO THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY’ BUT CONTINUE TO INFLUENCE THE 21ST CENTURY CE (ACRT: 15-17; RGS).  (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: LYCIAN TOMBS: DALYAN, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY,  4TH C. BCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: TELEPHOTO ZOOM OF SIX LYCIAN TEMPLE TOMBS

SLIDE LOCATION TURKEY, SHEET 91, ROW 3, SLEEVE 4, SLIDE #Be59, 4TH C. BCE.

CO_TUR_S91_R3_SL4_SBe59

SHOT ON LOCATION: LYCIAN TOMBS: DALYAN ISLET, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

NOTE 1:

THIS EPOCH IS SIGNIFICANT FOR NUMEROUS REASONS INCLUDING CONSIDERABLE CULTURAL AND ARCHITECTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS SUCH AS THE LYCIAN TELMESSUS NECROPOLIS, NEREID MONUMENT, THE HARPY FRIEZE, DALYAN TEMPLE-TOMBS, ETC. THAT HAVE CONTINUED TO RESONATE THROUGHOUT THE CENTURIES (RGS).  … ANATOLIAN TRADITIONS NOT ONLY SURVIVED ‘AS A SUCCESSFUL KIND OF BLEND THROUGH THE ROMAN PERIOD AND UP TO THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY’ BUT CONTINUE TO INFLUENCE THE 21ST CENTURY CE (ACRT: 15-17; RGS).  (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: NEREID MONUMENT: XANTHOS, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: NEREID TEMPLE-LIKE TOMB INC. STUNNING FRIEZES IS FROM XANTHOS NEAR PRESENT DAY ANTALYA, 390-380 BCE.

CO_TUR_S91a_R2_SL4_S22

SHOT ON LOCATION: BRITISH MUSEUM: LONDON, ENGLAND.

NOTE 1:

THIS EPOCH IS SIGNIFICANT FOR NUMEROUS REASONS INCLUDING CONSIDERABLE CULTURAL AND ARCHITECTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS SUCH AS THE LYCIAN TELMESSUS NECROPOLIS, NEREID MONUMENT, THE HARPY FRIEZE, DALYAN TEMPLE-TOMBS, ETC. THAT HAVE CONTINUED TO RESONATE THROUGHOUT THE CENTURIES (RGS).  … ANATOLIAN TRADITIONS NOT ONLY SURVIVED ‘AS A SUCCESSFUL KIND OF BLEND THROUGH THE ROMAN PERIOD AND UP TO THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY’ BUT CONTINUE TO INFLUENCE THE 21ST CENTURY CE (ACRT: 15-17; RGS).  (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: HARPY TOMB: XANTHOS (ANATOLIA) TURKEY, 480-470 BCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: HARPY TOMB INC. A SERIES OF PARIAN RELIEFS OF THREE GIRLS WITH OFFERINGS FOR TWO CATHEDRA DEITIES: FROM THE XANTHOS ACROPOLIS NEAR PRESENT DAY ANTALYA, TURKEY.

CO_TUR_S91a_R3_SL3_S7

SHOT ON LOCATION: BRITISH MUSEUM: LONDON, ENGLAND.

NOTE 1:

THIS EPOCH IS SIGNIFICANT FOR NUMEROUS REASONS INCLUDING CONSIDERABLE CULTURAL AND ARCHITECTURAL CONTRIBUTIONS SUCH AS THE LYCIAN TELMESSUS NECROPOLIS, NEREID MONUMENT, THE HARPY FRIEZE, DALYAN TEMPLE-TOMBS, ETC. THAT HAVE CONTINUED TO RESONATE THROUGHOUT THE CENTURIES (RGS).  … ANATOLIAN TRADITIONS NOT ONLY SURVIVED ‘AS A SUCCESSFUL KIND OF BLEND THROUGH THE ROMAN PERIOD AND UP TO THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY ‘BUT CONTINUE TO INFLUENCE THE 21ST CENTURY CE (ACRT: 15-17; RGS).  (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: CYBELE AND HER LION – DRAWN CHARIOT: (ANATOLIA) TURKEY, nd c. BCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION, PHRYGIAN CYBELE ENTHRONED IN HER LION – DRAWN BRONZE CHARIOT: (ANATOLIA) TURKEY. (MG: 401, FIG. 8.)

IT_CYB_S1_R1_SL2_S2.jpg

SHOT ON LOCATION: MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY: NEW YORK,  NY.

NOTE 1:

A GRAECO – PERSIAN – ANATOLIAN FUSION OCCURS IN LYDIA IN THE ASSIMILATION OF ANAHITA, THE PERSIAN GODDESS OF FERTILIZING WATERS, TO CYBELE AND TO ARTEMIS EPHESIA. FROM THIS BLENDING, CYBELE IS KNOWN AS METER ANAHITA, ARTEMIS ANAHITA, OR THE PERSIAN ARTEMIS (FOG: 208). (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: ALSO SEE ASPHODEL LONG’S WEB SITE ON CIIS LIBRARY’S WEB PAGE.

NOTE 3: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1993.

 

IMAGE: ARTEMIS: EPHESUS, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY, BCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: MANY BREASTED (POLYMASTIC) ARTEMIS/DIANA:

EPHESUS, (ANATOLIA) TURKEY.

CO_TUR_S98_R3_SL1_SBg37

SHOT ON LOCATION: EPHESUS MUSEUM (EFES MUZESI): SELCUK, (ANATOLIA)

TURKEY.

NOTE 1:

A GRAECO – PERSIAN – ANATOLIAN FUSION OCCURS IN LYDIA IN THE ASSIMILATION OF ANAHITA, THE PERSIAN GODDESS OF FERTILIZING WATERS, TO CYBELE AND TO ARTEMIS EPHESIA. FROM THIS BLENDING, CYBELE IS KNOWN AS METER ANAHITA, ARTEMIS ANAHITA, OR THE PERSIAN ARTEMIS (FOG: 208). (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1986.

 

IMAGE: HERA: SICILY, ITALY.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: CATHEDRA HERA WITH APPLE AND BOWL OF FRUIT, SOUTHERN ITALY, 400 BCE.

CU_SIC_S22_R2_SL2_S26

SHOT ON LOCATION: BRITISH MUSEUM: LONDON, ENGLAND.

NOTE 1: AN ICONOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION OF THE CATHEDRA (THRONE)

GODDESS HERA INCLUDES HIEROS GAMOS. (APL: 2-23-1999.)

NOTE 2: “THE HIEROS GAMOS FROM WHENCE A ROYAL SOVEREIGN GETS HIS [OR HER] POWER AND THIS IS THE GODDESS HERSELF (APL: 2-23-1999).”

NOTE 3: “ANAHITA (TRANSLATION UNDEFILED) IS HAILED BY THE EPITHET OF

HIGH HARA AND PATRON GODDESS OF PREGNANT WOMEN (TSB: 144).”

NOTE 4: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1998-2002

.

 

IMAGE: DEITY ANAHITA: GRAECO – PERSIAN – ANATOLIA, BCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: OMNIPOTENT GREAT DEITY, ANAHITA (UNDEFILED) FROM SADAGH, NE TURKEY. GRAECO – PERSIAN – ANATOLIAN ASSIMILATION. IN ADDITION TO ANATOLIA, SELECTED ALTARS ARE THROUGHOUT “BABYLONIA, SUSA, EKBATANA, PERSEPOLIS, BAKTRA, DAMASKOS, AND SARDES.” (HG: 138.)

IT_RPO_S3_R3_SL4_S27.jpg

SHOT ON LOCATION: BRITISH MUSEUM: LONDON, ENGLAND.

NOTE 1:

AS DISCUSSED ABOVE, HERA AND ANAHITA SHARED SIMILAR

ATTRIBUTES. ANAHITA (TRANSLATION UNDEFILED) IS HAILED BY THE EPITHET OF HIGH HARA, PATRON GODDESS OF PREGNANT WOMEN (TSB: 144; RGS). (AT SAMOS, HERA WAS HAILED AS PARTHENOS). (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 2:

IN OLD PERSIAN TEXTS, ‘SHE WAS CONSIDERED TO BE SECOND IN IMPORTANCE ONLY [TO] THE SUPREME GOD, AHURA MAZDA: ‘BY THE WILL OF AHURA MAZDA, ANAHITA, AND MITHRA … MAY AHURA MAZDA, ANAHITA, AND MITHRA PROTECT ME’ (API: 27; RGS). (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 3:

IN 34 BCE, THE ROMANS SMASHED THE YERIZA GOLD STATUE OF ANAHITA IN YEKEGHIATS PROVINCE. AT THE TURN OF THE 19TH CENTURY CE, A BRONZE HEAD WAS FOUND IN SATAGH (YERZNKA REGION) AND PRESENTLY HOUSED IN LONDON’S BRITISH MUSEUM (AAG: 31; RGS).

NOTE 4:

OF FURTHER INTEREST IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ANAHITA AND NANA. ‘IRANIAN ANAHITA, WHO WAS ULTIMATELY A RIVER GODDESS, LATER ASSUMED THE FUNCTIONS AND MANIFESTATIONS OF THE MESOPOTAMIAN NANÂ’ (NTS: 539). THIS IS OF SPECIAL INTEREST GIVEN HOW FREQUENTLY ELDER WOMEN AND GRANDMOTHERS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD GO BY THE ENDEARING NAMES OF NANÂ, NANAIA, NAUNIE OR (NANAU) * (WPG: 100-102; RGS). (SOURCE: ENTRY ABOVE.)

NOTE 5: * NANAU AS COINED BY GRANDSON, CONSTANTINE KARVONIDES II IN

2013.

NOTE 6: FOR FURTHER INFORMATION:

NABARZ, PAYAM. ‘INTRODUCTION TO ANAHITA THE LADY OF PERSIA.’  ANAHITA: ANCIENT PERSIAN GODDESS AND ZOROASTRIAN YAZATA. ED. PAYAM NABARZ. LONDON, ENGLAND: AVALONIA, 2013 (IAL: 27-32).

NOTE 7: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1998-2002.

 

IMAGE: ANAHITA OR INANNA/ISHTAR: SUSA ACROPOLIS, SW IRAN, MID-SECOND MILLENNIUM BCE.

PHOTO: © GSA. DESCRIPTION: TERRA COTTA ICON OF STANDING GODDESS HOLDING HER BREASTS INC. ANAHITA– OR – INANNA/ISHTAR, SUSA ACROPOLIS IN SW IRAN.

CU_NEA_S6_R2_SL3_S32E.jpg

SHOT ON LOCATION: MUSÉE DU LOUVRE: PARIS, FRANCE.

NOTE 1: “THE PATRON DEITY OF THE EYE TEMPLE COMPLEX WAS ISHTAR [OR ESH-TAR], PREVIOUSLY KNOWN AS INANNA  (TEG: 25; RGS).”

NOTE 2: “FEMALE CLAY FIGURES WITH THEIR HANDS RAISED TO THEIR BREAST RESEMBLE IDOLS [ICONS] OF THE MOTHER GODDESS WHICH WERE LATER WIDELY DISSEMINATED IN THE NEAR EAST (ROTGG: 23).”

NOTE  3: FIELDWORK PROJECT 1980-1989.

ReGenesis

ENCYCLOPEDIA

GSA "Goddess, Sites and Artifacts Collection "  curated by Eahr BA Joan